Sunday, May 24, 2020

Language, Physical Appearance And Religion - 1913 Words

TITLE Sanjana Satish H2P Paper 1 The word â€Å"community† is usually defined as a group of people living together in the same area and having some common characteristics, such as language, physical appearance and religion. In The Songlines by Bruce Chatwin, the common characteristics that form the Aboriginals’ tribal communities are familial ties and their culture (similar form of lifestyle, similar beliefs and similar traditions); while in Gilgamesh it is the city-state they belong to and their settled lifestyle that holds the community together. Another difference in the two works is that the society in The Songlines does not have a hierarchal monarchy that Gilgamesh has, but instead has everyone as equals for the most part. However,†¦show more content†¦There are Tjakamarras and Jaburullas and Duburungas like me, and so on all over the country,† (Chatwin, 290). This means that they identify as their tribe and not the name that is put on them by white Australians. However , despite this, all the tribes follow the same religious beliefs. They all go on Walkabouts, they all sing the songs of the Ancestors, and they all have tjurungas that they view as sacred. Another aspect of their religion is that they have Kirda and Kutungurlu in each tribe. Kirda is â€Å"the owner or boss of the land,† while Kutungurlu is the â€Å" manager or helper † of the ‘boss’ (Chatwin, 98). The reason this binds the different tribes together is because the Kutungurlu has to be from â€Å"a different totemic clan and was a nephew† of the Kirda on his mother’s side (Ferry, 98). This ensures that the clans communicate and be at peace with each other, as they are interdependent on the other. Another aspect of their culture that strengthens feelings of community is the abundance of singing and rituals. The songs of the Aboriginals tell the stories of their Ancestor walking across Australia, and each Aboriginal â€Å"owns† a certain part of the song, which also acts as their property deeds. Whenever the elders decided to sing the whole song, they send word so that all the Aboriginals of that clan gather together and stand

Monday, May 18, 2020

According to most psychologists and research on...

According to most psychologists and research on dissociative disorders, Dissociative Identity Disorder (previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder) is a posttraumatic mental illness formed from disturbing experiences as a child, especially child abuse. The socio-cognitive model describes integration between social and cognitive influences on the way to function and process information and is therefore connected. Psychiatrists who believe in this model suggest that DID is not a valid psychiatric disorder but instead caused by therapists training their patients to believe their symptoms are leading them to create different sets of personalities. Also, DID may be a result of the media’s portrayal on psychotherapeutic defense mechanisms†¦show more content†¦According to this socio-cognitive model, psychotherapists have the most crucial role in influencing a patient’s condition by proposing and validating the concept of alternate identities, using hypnosis to create symptoms, and then manipulating the patients behavior through differential reinforcement (Spanos, 1994). It is also highly possible that the media could have led to the growing creation of the disorder by presenting cases such as Corbett H. Thigpen and Hervey M. Cleckley’s, The Three Faces of Eve, and Sybil, written by Flora Rheta Schreiber. These books and films have legitimized this mental disorder and facilitated the general public in learning how to replicate the character of someone diagnosed with DID. There have been many critiques of the theory that DID is medically induced and the conclusions reached by researchers has often stated that even though some developing symptoms of DID can be created from therapeutic advice, there is not any evidence that suggests that the disorder itself could be created. Therefore, the theory fails to explain several reported cases of the disorder. It has also been acknowledged that the definitive assumption is false because itShow MoreRelatedDissociative Identity Disorder Essay1194 Words   |  5 Pagesparticular film came to mind. Teddy Daniels, played by Leonardo DiCaprio in Shutter Island is a perfect example of someone who displays dissociative identity disorder. Even though the movie leaves the audience curious as to whether Daniels actually has multiple personality disorder, it is evident by the end of the film that Daniels has dissociative personality disorder. The people who are unfamiliar with this film and main character, Teddy Daniels w as once a detective who had a family, but also had experiencedRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder ( Mpd )2805 Words   |  12 Pages Running Head: DISOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER 1 Abstract â€Å"Dissociative identity disorder (DID), which was formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), is a disorder in which an individual has the presence of two or more identities or personality states† (Pais 2009, pg.1). Throughout this paper the reader will be provided with information regarding Dissociative Identity Disorder; a disorder that is truly as unique, and complicatedRead MoreMultiple Personality Disorder Essay1635 Words   |  7 PagesMultiple Personality Disorder Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is a mental disease that exists in about one percent of the population. Much research supports the existence of this disease and its origins, causes and effects on the people in who suffer with it. This essay will clearly define Multiple Personality Disorder along with a detailed synopsis of the disease itself. The diagnosis, alter personalities, different treatments and views will indicate the disease is real. The AmericanRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder And Multiple Personality Disorder1399 Words   |  6 Pages Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, is defined as â€Å"a severe condition in which two or more distinct identities, or personality states, are present in—and alternately take control of—an individual†. In 1994, the name of the disorder was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition. DID is characterized by fragmentation, not by the growth of separate identities. DID is not a new disorder. However, it has been misunderstood forRead MoreHow Shutter Island Relates to Psychology Essay example1070 Words   |  5 Pagesconstant learning and new therapy methods from psychologist. You have different types of mental hospitals. According to Jeremy Clyman, M.A. the movie was â€Å"inspired by the snake pit mental hospitals of the 50s and 60s in which many chronically ill patients suffered a lifetime of filth and mistreatment†. Because of the new discoveries as how to treat the mentally ill in the1950s, dangerous medicines and operations were used on people without much research. The movie discusses the ice pick frontalRead MoreDissociative Identity Disorder And Media Depictions3153 Words   |  13 PagesDissociative Identity Disorder and Media Depictions We live in a world where the entertainment industry is thriving. Over the years, there have been several films, books, and television shows that depict a disorder that is most currently known as Dissociative Identity Disorder, previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder. Some of the most disturbing film and television scenes are those that involve a person dramatically switching from their dominant self to a dark and demented alter ego, oftenRead MoreAp Psychology2810 Words   |  12 Pagesfor A) antisocial personality disorder. B) dissociative identity disorder. C) major depressive disorder. D) obsessive-compulsive disorder. E) schizophrenia. 2. A lack of conscience is most characteristic of those who have a(n) ________ disorder. A) dissociative B) antisocial personality C) dysthymic D) generalized anxiety E) obsessive-compulsive 3. A World Health Organization study of 20 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year. A ) JapanRead MoreThe Three Faces of Eve and dissociative identity disorder2060 Words   |  9 PagesAlthough dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder) is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose, it seems to be awfully popular with numerous Hollywood interpretations. The Three Faces of Eve does a fairly admirable job of conveying the disorder even though information defining the illness was (and still is) limited at the time the movie was made. Eve White, Eve Black, and Jane, all played by Joanne Woodward, had distinct personalities. Eve White was the quietRead MoreQuestions on Abnormal Psychology4701 Words   |  19 PagesPoints Question 1 of 50 1.0 Points According to the integrative model, which of the following factors influence the onset and maintenance of somatic symptom disorders?   A.Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors.   B.Psychological, cultural and perceptual factors.   C.Medical, sociological, and psychological factors.   D.Cultural, medical, and gender factors. Answer Key:  A Question 2 of 50 1.0 Points Concerning the cause of dissociative disorders, _______ dominate(s) this field ofRead MoreEssay about A Singular Self-Identity3465 Words   |  14 Pages Self-identity is singular. The belief in this existence of one’s self, presupposes all our experiences of consciousness. We all hold that this identity is ours alone. I speak of my experiences as experienced by me. I would seem to be talking nonsense , if I referred to myself in the plural or spoke of how the multiplicity of ‘me’s’ experienced an event. Although most will submit to the existence of levels of consciousness, we categorize those people who exhibit distinct personalities as non-ordinary

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Figure of Sound in Prose and Poetry

A figure of speech that relies primarily on the sound of a word or phrase (or the repetition of sounds) to convey a particular effect is known as a figure of sound. Although figures of sound are often found in poetry, they can also be used effectively in prose. Common figures of sound include alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. Examples and Observations: AlliterationA moist young moon hung above the mist of a neighboring meadow.(Vladimir Nabokov, Speak Memory: An Autobiography Revisited, 1966)AssonanceShips at a distance have every mans wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others they sail forever on the same horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men.(Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937)ConsonanceThis earth is tough stuff, he said. Break a mans back, break a plow, break an oxs back for that matter.(David Anthony Durham, Gabriels Story. Doubleday, 2001)OnomatopoeiaFlora left Franklin’s side and went to the one-armed bandits spread along one whole side of the room. From where she stood it looked like a forest of arms yanking down levers. There was a continuous clack, clack, clack of levers, then a click, click, click of tumblers coming up. Following this was a metallic poof some times followed by the clatter of silver dollars coming down through the funnel to land with a happy smash in the coin receptacle at the bottom of the machine.(Rod Serling, The Fever. Stories From the Twilight Zone, 2013)RhymeA veritable fusillade of smells, compounded of the pungent odors of deep fat, sharks fin, sandalwood, and open drains, now bombarded our nostrils and we found ourselves in the thriving hamlet of Chinwangtao. Every sort of object imaginable was being offered by street hawkers--basketwork, noodles, poodles, hardware, leeches, breeches, peaches, watermelon seeds, roots, boots, flutes, coats, shoats, stoats, even early vintage phonograph records.(S.J. Perelman, Westward Ha! 1948)Figures of Sound in Poes ProseDuring the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country, and at length found myself, as the shades o f evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher.(Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher, 1839)Figures of Sound in Dylan Thomass ProseThere was no need, that holiday morning, for the sluggardly boys to be shouted down to breakfast; out of their jumbled beds they tumbled, and scrambled into their rumpled clothes; quickly at the bathroom basin they catlicked their hands and faces, but never forgot to run the water loud and long as though they washed like colliers; in front of the cracked looking-glass, bordered with cigarette cards, in their treasure-trove bedrooms, they whisked a gap-tooth comb through their surly hair; and with shining cheeks and noses and tidemarked necks, they took the stairs three at a time.But for all their scramble and scamper, clamour on the landing, catlick and toothbrush flick, hair-whisk and stair-jump, their sisters were always there before them. Up with the lady lark, they had prinked and frizzed and hot-ironed; and smug in their b lossoming dresses, ribboned for the sun, in gym-shoes white as the blancod snow, neat and silly with doilies and tomatoes they helped in the higgledy kitchen. They were calm; they were virtuous; they had washed their necks; they did not romp, or fidget; and only the smallest sister put out her tongue at the noisy boys.(Dylan Thomas, Holiday Memory, 1946. Rpt. in The Collected Stories. New Directions, 1984)Figures of Sound in John Updikes Prose- Do you remember a fragrance girls acquire in autumn? As you walk beside them after school, they tighten their arms about their books and bend their heads forward to give a more flattering attention to your words, and in the little intimate area thus formed, carved into the clear air by an implicit crescent, there is a complex fragrance woven of tobacco, powder, lipstick, rinsed hair, and that perhaps imaginary and certainly elusive scent that wool, whether in the lapels of a jacket or the nap of a sweater, seems to yield when the cloudless fa ll sky like the blue bell of a vacuum lifts toward itself the glad exhalations of all things. This fragrance, so faint and flirtatious on those afternoon walks through the dry leaves, would be banked a thousandfold and lie heavy as the perfume of a flower shop on the dark slope of the stadium when, Friday nights, we played football in the city.(John Updike, In Football Season. The New Yorker, November 10, 1962)- By rhyming, language calls attention to its own mechanical nature and relieves the represented reality of seriousness. In this sense, rhyme and allied irregularities like alliteration and assonance assert a magical control over things and constitute a spell. When children, in speaking, accidentally rhyme, they laugh, and add, Im a poet / And dont know it, as if to avert the consequences of a stumble into the supernatural. . . .Our mode is realism, realistic is synonymous with prosaic, and the prose writers duty is to suppress not only rhyme but any verbal accident that would mar the textual correspondence to the massive, onflowing impersonality that has supplanted the chiming heavens of the saint.(John Updike, Rhyming Max. Assorted Prose. Alfred A. Knopf, 1965)Poetic Functions of Language[English poet] Gerard Manley Hopkins, an outstanding searcher in the science of poetic language, defined verse as speech wholly or partially repeating the same figure of sound. Hopkins subsequent question, but is all verse poetry? can be definitely answered as soon as the poetic function ceases to be arbitrarily confined to the domain of poetry. Mnemonic lines cited by Hopkins (like Thirty days hath September), modern advertising jingles, and versified medieval laws, mentioned by Lotz, or finally Sanskrit scientific treatises in verse which in Indic tradition are strictly distinguished from true poetry (kavya)--all these metrical texts make use of the poetic function without, however, assigning to this function the coercing, determining role it carries in poetry.(Roman Jakobson, Language in Literature. Harvard University Press, 1987)Word Play and Sound Play in a Poem by E.E. Cummingsapplaws)fellowsitisnts(a paw s(E.E. Cummings, Poem 26 in 1 X 1, 1944)The False Dichotomy Between Sound and SenseIn plain expository prose, such as this book is written in, says [literary critic G.S. Fraser], both writer and reader are consciously concerned not mainly with rhythm but with sense. This is a false dichotomy. The sounds of a poem connected by rhythm are indeed the living body of thought. Take the sound as poetry and there is no further stage of interpretation into poetry. Just the same is true of periodic prose: the rhythm of the period organizes sound into a unit of sense.My criticism of the logical tradition in grammar is just that stress, pitch, attitude, emotion are not suprasegmental matters added to the basic logic or syntax but other glimpses of a linguistic whole which includes grammar as usually understood. . . . I accept the now unfashionable vie w of all the old grammarians that prosody is a necessary part of grammar. . . .Figures of thought like understatement or emphasis are no more and no less expressed in sound than anything else.(Ian Robinson, The Establishment of Modern English Prose in the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press, 1998)Figures of Sound in 16th-Century Prose- Suspicion that an inordinate attraction to figures of sound was likely to tyrannise a writers style, that the claims of the ear threatened to dominate those of the mind, has always dogged analysis of Tudor prose, especially in the case of [John] Lyly. Francis Bacon indicted [Roger] Ascham and his followers for precisely this failing: for men began to hunt more after words than matter; more after the choiceness of the phrase, and the round and clean composition of the sentence, and the sweet falling of the clauses, and the varying and illustration of their works with tropes and figures, than after the weight of the matter, wor th of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment [The Advancement of Learning].(Russ McDonald, Compar or Parison: Measure for Measure. Renaissance Figures of Speech, ed. by Sylvia Adamson, Gavin Alexander, and Katrin Ettenhuber. Cambridge University Press, 2007)- Shall my good will be the cause of his ill will? Because I was content to be his friend, thought he me meet to be made his fool? I see now that as the fish scolopidus in the flood Araris at the waxing of the moon is as white as the driven snow, and at the waning as black as the burnt coal, so Euphues, which at the first increasing of our familiarity was very zealous, is now at the last cast become most faithless.(John Lyly, Euphues: the Anatomy of Wit, 1578) See also: 10 Titillating Types of Sound Effects in LanguageEuphonyEuphuismExercise in Identifying Sound Effects in Poetry and ProseFigures of SpeechHomoioteleutonHomophonesOronymProsodyReduplicativeRhythmSound Symbolism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Animal Farm By George Orwell - 1470 Words

Animal Farm As Lord Acton once said, â€Å"Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely†. During the beginning of the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell, Old Major, the prize Middle White boar describes the oppression that the animals on Manor Farm have experienced. Old Major goes to foreshadow that a day will come when the animals will overthrow their human masters and build an equitable society. That day does in fact come and the animals cause their previous master, Jones, to flee the farm leading to the farms original name of Manor Farm to be changed to Animal Farm. However, we quickly see that the pigs, by virtue of their leadership of the revolution, quickly become corrupted by the power that they have achieved thus corrupting the primary ideals on animalism. A few days following the revolution, the principles of Animalism were pure and simple, and all abided to the seven commandments put forth. The most significant of the seven commandments and the backbone of animalism was set out by Old Major and enforced by a boar named Snowball during the very beginning of the novel stating that, â€Å"‘...above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers’† (Orwell, 11) which was later summarized to be the seventh commandment, â€Å"all animal are equal† (Orwell, 25). Old Major having said this goes to show that the initial purpose of animalism and the revolution was not to take out one dictator merely so he can beShow MoreRelatedAnimal Farm And George Orwell By George Orwell1034 Words   |  5 Pages Eric Arthur Blair, under the pseudonym of George Orwell, composed many novels in his lifetime that were considered both politically rebellious and socially incorrect. Working on the dream since childhood, Orwell would finally gain notoriety as an author with his 1945 novel Animal Farm, which drew on personal experiences and deeply rooted fear to satirically critique Russian communism during its expansion. Noticing the impact he made, he next took to writing the novel 1984, which similarly criticizedRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell1397 Words   |  6 PagesAn important quote by the influential author of Animal Farm, George Orwell, is, â€Å"Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism.† George Orwell, a Democratic Socialist, wrote the book Animal Farm as an attack on the Communist country of Russia (â€Å"The Political Ideas of George Orwell,† He had a very strong disliking of Communism and the Socialist party of Russia. However, he insisted on finding the truthRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1545 Words   |  7 Pagesallow because an this elite institution of people often use this gear to dominate and oppress society. In George Orwell’s story, Animal Farm, Orwell demonstrates that education is a powerful weapon and is a device that can be used to at least one’s benefit. Living in a world where strength is a straightforward to benefit, the pigs quick use education to govern the relaxation of the animals on the farm to serve themselves worked to their advantage. This story in shows the underlying message that   firstRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell944 Words   |  4 Pageslegs(Orwell 132). He carried a whip in his trotter(Orwell 133). In the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell, animals have the ability to talk and form their own ethos, Animalism. Animal Farm is an intriguing allegory by George Orwell, who is also th e author of 1984, includes many enjoyable elements. More knowledge of the author, his use of allegorical elements, themes, symbols, and the significance in the real world, allows the reader to get more out of this glance into the future. George OrwellRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell876 Words   |  4 Pagesrebellious animals think no man means freedom and happiness, but they need to think again. The animals of Manor Farm rebel against the farm owner, Mr. Jones, and name it Animal Farm. The animals create Animalism, with seven commandments. As everything seems going well, two of the animals get into a rivalry, and things start changing. Food starts disappearing and commandments are changed, and the power begins to shift. Father of dystopian genre, George Orwell writes an interesting allegory, Animal FarmRead MoreAnimal Farm by George Orwell1100 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: Widely acknowledged as a powerful allegory, the 1945 novella Animal Farm, conceived from the satirical mind of acclaimed author George Orwell, is a harrowing fable of a fictional dystopia that critiques the socialist philosophy of Stalin in terms of his leadership of the Soviet Union. Tired of their servitude to man, a group of farm animals revolt and establish their own society, only to be betrayed into worse servitude by their leaders, the pigs, whose initial virtuous intentionsRead MoreAnimal Farm By George Orwell1538 Words   |  7 PagesMecca Animal Farm The Russian Revolution in 1917 shows how a desperate society can be turned into a military superpower filled with terror and chaos. George Orwell uses his book, Animal Farm, to parallel this period of time in history. This book is an allegory of fascism and communism and the negative outcomes. The animals begin with great unity, working toward a common goal. The government then becomes corrupted by the temptations of power. George Orwell uses the characters in Animal Farm to showRead MoreAnimal Farm by George Orwell1175 Words   |  5 PagesAn enthusiastic participant in the Spanish civil war in 1936, George Orwell had a great understanding of the political world and made his strong opinions known through his enlightening literary works, many of which are still read in our modern era. Inspired by the 1917 Russian Revolution and the failed society it resulted in, Animal Farm by George Orwell is an encapsulating tale that epitomises how a free utopian society so idealistic can never be accomplished. The novella exemplifies how influencesRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1089 Words   |  5 PagesIn George Orwell’s â€Å"Animal Farm†, the pigs as the farm leaders, use unknown language, invoke scare tactics and create specific laws, thereby enabling them to control other animals, to suit their greedy desires, and to perform actions outside their realm of power. Because of the pigs’ use of broad language, and the implementation of these tactics they are able to get away with avoiding laws, and are able to convince other animals into believing untrue stories that are beneficial to the pigs. The firstRead MoreAnimal Farm, By George Orwell1212 Words   |  5 PagesShe stood there over the dead animals thinking to herself what have we come to? We try to become free but we just enslave ourselves to a so called superior kind. Napoleon killed the animals in front of the whole farm and said that this was to be the punishment for the traitors. Snowball was known as a traitor now and anyone conspiring with him would be killed. Snowball and Napoleon both represent historical characters during the Russian revolution in 1917.Snowball who was one of the smartest pigs

Real Time Road Sign Recognition System Free Essays

Real Time Road Sign Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Networks For Bengali Textual Information Box An Automated Road Sign Recognition system using Artificial Neural Network for the Textual Information box inscribing in Bengali is presented on the paper. Signs are visual languages that represent some special circumstantial information of environment. Road signs, being among the most important around us primarily for safety reasons, are designed, and manufactured and installed according to tight regulations. We will write a custom essay sample on Real Time Road Sign Recognition System or any similar topic only for you Order Now The system captures real time images every two seconds and saves them as JPG format files. Firstly some road sign are already stored in the memory. Like: Warning Sign, Prohibition Sign, Obligation Sign and Informative Sign. Car Driver concentration and illiterateness isn’t always focused on what it should be and not always notice the road signs. For these reasons, automation of Bangla Road Sign Recognition system is highly essential. Previously several works are done by Mueller, Piccioli, Novovicova, Yuille, Escalera and others. But those are not in Bengali. Real Time Road Sign Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Networks for Bengali Textual Information Box which is done by Mohammad Osiur Rahman, Fouzia Asharf Mousumi, Edgar Scavino, Aini Hussain, Hassan Basri whose are from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh, Faculty of Engineering, University Kebangsaan Malaysia. For doing this they divide the total Concept in Steps: 1. Image Acquisition: From several video sequences from a moving vehicle for a certain period are consecutive frames recorded within 2 seconds are similar. For this they have used Application Programming Interface functions of VB 6. 0. Every 2-second a frame is collected and stored in JPG format. 2. Preprocessing: Median filter is used to reduce impulsive or salt-and-pepper type noise from captured images and then normalized into 320 X 240 pixels. 3. Text Detection and Extraction: An algorithm was developed for textual information detection and extraction from Bangla Road Signs on the basis of the Sobel Edge Detection technique. Like the following: I. Read input image in . jpg format II. Convert colored image into gray scale image III. Apply 3Ãâ€"3 median filter convolution masks on gray scale image IV. Calculated edges by applying Sobel convolutions mask V. Thicken the calculated edges by dilation VI. Apply vertical Sobel projection filter on dimmed image VII. Create a histogram by computing projection values VIII. Find the threshold value of the image IX. Loop on the possible positive identifications based on the histogram values X. Extract the possible positive identifications based on the histogram values XI. Apply Sobel horizontal edge-emphasis for other possible text area searches XII. Convert detected text region into binary image XIII. Calculate height and width of detected region of text XIV. Crop the image 4. Bangla OCR using MLP: An ANN based approach is used for Bangla OCR of road signs’ text. It has 3 sub modules – Character segmentation, Feature Extraction and Character Recognition by MLP NN. 5. Confirmation of Textual Road Signs and Conversion 6. Speech synthesis The Proposed system works like the following: 1. From video sequences capture a single frame in JPG format in each 2 seconds. 2. Preprocess the captured image each time . Detect the Text and Extract that and then Extracted Text will recognize by Bengali Optical Character Recognition System. 4. Recognized characters of textual information compared with the stored knowledge and then give decision valid or invalid. 5. If Valid then recognize and according to users choice it provide Bengali or it convert to English and provide audio stream. The system processes the images to find out whe ther they contain images of road signs or not. The textual information of the road signs is detected and extracted from the images. The Bengali OCR system takes the textual information as an input to recognize individual Bengali characters. The Bengali OCR is implemented using Multi-layer Perceptron. The output of the Bengali OCR system is compared with the previously enrolled standard Bengali textual road signs. The throughput which comes from the matching process is used as input for the speech synthesizer and finally the system delivers the audio stream to the driver, either in Bengali or in English based on the user settings. After testing this system, the obtained accuracy rate was evaluated at 91. 48%. Our Idea by using Hopfield Associative Memory Our work to done this thesis by using Associative Memory. Which are two types – Hetero Associative Memory Auto Associative Memory. We will use the Auto-associative / Autocorrelators Memory for our purposes. It’s now most easily recognized by the title of HAM(Hopfield Associative Memory), were introduced as a theoretical notation by Donald Hebb. To do this we need to first generate Matrices (Row or Column Matrix) in the Bipolar Boolean format (-1 and +1) from the Image. Then the matrices need to transpose of each of the matrices and then create the encoding process (The Connection Matrix) by [pic] And then need to Recognized of the stored patterns or feed each of the matrix by [pic] Introducing the Bipolar Function to [pic]. If [pic] = 0 set the value +1 otherwise set the value -1 for each of the Element of the Matrix of [pic]. Now Recognition of Noisy Patterns by finding the Hamming Distance (HD) with the Given Noisy Pattern N by [pic] Which Hamming Distance of noisy and stored pattern are less the probability of matching to noisy pattern with the stored pattern are most. And then need to Recognized of the Noisy patterns or feed each of the matrix with Encoding Process by [pic] By using Bipolar Function to [pic]. If [pic] 0 set the value +1 otherwise set the value -1 for each of the Element of the Matrix of [pic]. In this method we need to store all road sign text segmented by each blank will generate Matrices. And by the above method generate correlation matrix. If the Bipolar Noisy Matrix matched with the Transposed Matrix of the stored Image Transpose Matrix, in the case of partial vectors, an Auto-Correlator results in the refinement of the pattern or removal of noise to retrieve the closest matching stored pattern. Our Idea by using WANG et al. ’s Multiple training encoding strategy (WANG MTES): The algorithm of the WANG MTES is like the following: Step-1:Initialize the correlation matrix M to null matrix M ( [0]. Step-2:Compute the M as, For I ( 1 to N M ( M ( [qi * (Transpose Xi’) ( Yi’] [where Xi’ and Yi bipolar patterns] End Step-3:Read input bipolar Pattern A’ Step-4:Compute A_M where A_M ( A’ ( M Step-5:Apply threshold function ( to A_M to get B’ [(=bipolar of Matrices] Step-6:Output B’ which is the associated Pattern Pair. In this method, as like the HOPFIELD ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY we need to store all road sign text segmented by each character will generate Matrices Associated with the equivalent ASCII of Bengali Character Matrix. And by the above method generate correlation matrix of the stored Pattern. Now from the input image text need to generate matrix of called noisy pattern will must in bipolar form. And Feed with the Correlation Matrix. Equation like the following: [pic] qi’s are positive real number called generalized correlation matrix, will be change according to the improving feeding necessity. Figure: Schematic view of Bangla Road Sign Recognition System ———————– Speech Language Choose? Speech synthesis Convert into equivalent English text English Bengali Audio stream Valid Bangla road Sign Recognized Unrecognized Yes Prememorized Knowledge (Bangla Sign Textual info Database) Image (JPG format) Processing Text detection extraction Matching Bangla OCR using WANG MTES Extracted Text Recognized Characters of Texture Information Single Frame Video Sequences No How to cite Real Time Road Sign Recognition System, Essays

Judicial Activism vs Judicial Restraint Essay Example For Students

Judicial Activism vs Judicial Restraint Essay Judicial activism and judicial restraint are two opposing philosophies when it comes to the Supreme Court justices interpretations of the United States Constitution; justices appointed by the President to the Supreme Court serve for life,and thus whose decisions shape the lives of We the people for a long time to come. Marbury v. Madison, one of the first Supreme Court cases asserting the power of judicial review, is an effective argument for this power; however, it lacks direct textual basis for the decision. John Marshall managed to get away with this deficiency because of the silence on many issues and the vague wording of the Constitution. Marshall was also the first to interpret the Constitution loosely, also known as judicial activism. During his term as Supreme Court Chief Justice, Marshall was also successful in loose constructionism through other landmark Supreme Court cases such as Gibbons v. Ogden (Emancipation Proclamation of commerce), and McCulloch v. Maryland (whose decision stated that the states cannot tax a federal bank). These landmark decisions were the basis and the precedent for future Supreme Court cases, and had also provided a means through which the Supreme Court can question the law and even possibly change different facets of life affecting the present and future of We the people. Liberals and Democrats tend to favor judicial activism as it opens new doors to interpretation and experimentation. However, those that favor judicial restraint on the other hand, and thus favor the status quo and the strict construction of the Constitution are conservatives and Republicans. Two landmark Supreme Court decisions that strictly interpreted the Constitution for its literal meaning were Dred Scott v. Sanford and Plessy v. Ferguson. In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that African Americans did not have the right to sue for their freedom, since they were seen strictly by the law as property and not even citizens of the United States. As well, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Court ruled that segregation of public schools was not unconstitutional, even though African Americans were still seen as equal citizens due to the 14th Amendment to the Constitution (separate but equal). However, this particular case was then overturned by Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas in 1954. The Brown decision, unlike that of Plessy v. Fergusion and Dred Scott v. Sanford expressed judicial activism and ruled racial segregation unconstitutional. Many will protest that the people do not elect the Supreme Court Justices and therefore the Supreme Court should not have the power of judicial activism and change the law of the land. However, as one critic points out, No institution in a democratic society could become and remain potent unless it could count on a solid block of public opinion that would rally to its side in a pinch. However, anticipating the nominees to the Supreme Court most likely to be forwarded to the US Senate for confirmation by President George Walker Bush, since Bush is a conservative, he is most likely to favor the philosophy of judicial restraint. Clearly, the Supreme Court is ultimately responsible to the will of the people, and the future ramifications of said choices may indeed lean toward judicial restraint more often than judicial activism, thus favoring the status quo and earlier precedents set by previous Supreme Court decisions. By maintaining independence from politics, the Justices avoid the major problems of political parties and party platforms. Furthermore, the Supreme Courts small size allows the Constitution to speak with a unified voice throughout the country. Bibliography: .

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Computer Crime (2899 words) Essay Example For Students

Computer Crime (2899 words) Essay Computer CrimeIts the weekend, you have nothing to do so you decide to play around on yourcomputer. You turn it on and then start up, you start calling people with yourmodem, connecting to another world, with people just like you at a button pressaway. This is all fine but what happens when you start getting into otherpeoples computer files. Then it becomes a crime, but what is a computer crimereally, obviously it involves the use of a computer but what are these crimes. Well they are: Hacking, Phreaking, ; Software Piracy. To begin I will startwith Hacking, what is hacking. Hacking is basically using your computer toHack your way into another. They use programs called scanners whichrandomly dials numbers any generating tones or carriers are recorded. Thesenumbers are looked at by hackers and then used again, when the hacker calls upthe number and gets on hes presented with a logon prompt, this is where thehacking really begins, the hacker tries to bypass this anyway he knows how toand tries to gain access to the system. Why do they do it, well lets go to abook and see Avid young computer hackers in their preteens and teens arefrequently involved in computer crimes that take the form of trespassing,invasion of privacy, or vandalism. Quite often they are mearly out for a fun andgames evening, and they get entangled in the illegal use of their machineswithout realizing the full import of what they are doing, I have a hardtime believing that so lets see what a hacker has to say about whathe does Just as they were enthraled with their pursuit of information, soare we. The thrill of the hack is not in breaking the law, its in the pursuitand capture of knowledge., as you can see the hacker doesntgo out to do destroy things although some do. Its in the pursuit of knowledge. Of course this is still against the law. But where did all of this start, MIT iswhere hacking started the people there would learn and explore computer systemsall around the world. In the views of professional hacking is like drugs or anyother addictive substance, its an addiction for the mind and once started itsdifficult to stop. This could be true, as hackers know what they are doing iswrong and they know odds are they will be caught. But as I mentioned somehackers are just above average criminals, using there skills to break in banksand other places where they can get money, or where they can destroyinformation. What a hacker does at a bank is take a few cents or even a fewfractions of a cents from many different accounts this may seem like nothing butwhen all compiled can be alot. A stick up robber averages about $8,000 eachjob, and he has to put his life and personal freedom on the line todo it while the computer hacker in the comfort of his own living room averages$500,000 a j ob. As for people destroying information, this is fortaking some one down, destruction of data could end a business which for some isvery attractive. It can cost a company thousands of dollars to restore thedamage done. Now that you have an understanding of what a hacker is,it time to move on to someone closely associates with a hacker. This is a Phreak,but what is that. For the answer we turn to the what is known as theOfficial Phreakers Manual Phreak 1. The action ofusing mischievous and mostly illegal ways in order to not pay for some sort oftelecommunications bill, order, transfer, or other service. It often involvesusage of highly illegal boxes and machines in order to defeat the security thatis set up to avoid this sort of happening. v. 2. A person who usesthe above methods of destruction and chaos in order to make a better life forall. A true phreaker will not go against his fellows or narc on people who haveragged on him or do anything termed to be dishonourable to phreaks . n. 3. A certain code or dialup useful in the action of being a phreak. (Example:I hacked a new metro phreak last night.) The latter 2 ideas ofwhat a phreak is, is rather weird. A Phreak like the hacker likes to explore andexperiment, however his choice of exploring is not other computer but the phonesystem as a whole. Phreaks explore the phone system finding many different waysto do things, most often make free calls. Why do they do this, A hackerand phreaker will have need to use telephone systems much more than an averageindividual, therefore, methods which can be used to avoid toll charges are inorder. . A phreak has two basic ways of making free calls, he can call upcodes or PBXs on his phone and then enter a code and make his call or he can useElectronic Toll Fraud Devices. Codes are rather easy to get the phreak will scanfor them, but unlike a hacker will only save the tone(s) number instead of thecarrier(s). Then he will attempt to hack the code to use it, these codes rangefrom numbers 0 9 and can be any length, although most are not more than 10. Electronic Toll Fraud Devices are known as Boxes in the underground. Most arethe size of a pack of smokes, or than can be smaller or bigger. I will not gotoo deep. They are electronic devices than do various things, such as makeoutgoing calls free, make incoming calls free, simulate coins dropping in aphone, etc. People who Phreak are caught alot these days thanks tothe new technology. Software Piracy is the most common computer crime, it is theillegal coping of software. People wouldnt think of shoplifting softwarefrom a retail store, but dont think twice about going home and making severalillegal copies of the same software. and this is true because I myself amguilty of this. The major problem is not people going out and buying thesoftware then making copies for everyone, its the Bulletin Boards that cater topirating software, that really cause the problem. On anyone one of these boardsone can find an upwards of 300 1000+ of pirated software open for anyone totake. This is a probl em and nothing can really be done about it. Few arrests aremade in this area of computer crime. I will now devote a brief section to theabove mentioned BBS , most are legal and do nothing wrong. However there aremany more that do accept pirated software, pornographic pictures, animations ,and texts. As well as a trading area for phone codes, other BBS, Credit Cardnumbers, etc. This is where a majority of Hackers and Phreaks come, as well asthose who continue to pirate software come to meet and share stories. In this isa new world, where you can do anything, there are groups that get, crack, andcourier software all over the world some of them are called: INC: InternationalNetwork Of Crackers, THG: The Humble Guys, TDT: The Dream Team. As well a numberof other groups have followed suit such as Phalcon/SKISM (Smart Kids Into SickMethods), NuKE, and YAM (Youngsters Against McAfee) these are virus groups whowrite and courier their work anywhere they can, they just send it somewhere,where anyone can take it and use it in any manner they wish, such as gettingeven with someone. All of these activities are illegal but nothing can be done,the people running these boards know what they are doing. As it stands rightnow, the BBS world is in two parts Pirating and the Underground, which consistsof Hackers/Phreaks/Anarchists/Carders(Credit Card Fraud)/Virus programmers. Allhave different boards and offer a variety of information on virtually anysubject. Well from all of this reading you just did you should have a fairlygood idea of what computer crime is. I didnt mention it in the sections but thepolice, phone companies are arresting and stopping alot of things every day. The sun also rises: Summary and Analysis of Epigraph and Chapters 1-4 Essay(McDonald, 1997) Clearly, anti-virus software is one of the smartest buys acomputer owner can make. There are nearly 10,000 known computer virusesthreatening the worlds personal computers, with effects ranging fromrelatively harmless to ferociously destructive. (Cope, 1998) Thesetroublemakers can spread to personal computers easily from an infected floppydisk, as well as from files downloaded onto the hard drive from an e- mailattachment and the Internet. (McDonald, 1997) Despite the great reviews of theseantivirus programs, many computer researchers maintain a sense of skepticismtowards complete protection. Regardless of how sophisticated antivirustechnology may become, computer viruses will forever remain in an uneasycoexistence with us and our computers. (Chess, 1997) Unless there areupdates to virus scanners every few minutes, no one is completely safe from adestructive virus. New viruses are popping up so fast that virus scanner vendorscannot hope to keep up with them. Even with the best of tools and policies,bulletproof security is probably unattainable. High costs, changingnetworks and software versions, incomplete security tools, and the growing poolof ingenious and dedicated hackers prohibit this. (Hackers,1997) The numbers of people who can create new viruses have also increased. (Yang, 1998) , a group of hackers quickly cracked amuch-vauntedcode using relatively simple brute force techniques.(Hackers, 1997) This breach of security was only five weeks afterthe data security invited the attack in the hope of proving its codes resistantto such attacks. Over several years, people have been perfecting the care ofpersonal computers. However, over that same amount of time, others have beenhard at work to develop new ways to cause a system to crash. Someproblems with a personal computer cannot be stopped, but preventative action cantake place for viruses. Every computer user should be equipped with an antivirusprogram; there is no way of predicting whether or not a simple file contains atremendous virus. The user must leave such a decision to the computer itself;only it can detect and destroy the virus. By purchasing a simple antiviruspackage, each computer user can hamper viruses from entering and destroying hispersonal computer. After taking all of the costs into consideration, it is muchmore expensive to rebuild a computer after destruction than it is to purchase aneffective antivirus software package. BibliographyChess, David, Jeffrey Kephart, Gregory Sorkin, and Steve White. Fighting Computer Viruses: Biological Metaphors Offer Insight into ManyAspects of Computer Viruses and Can Inspire Defenses Against Them.Scientific American Nov. 1997: 134-138. Computer. The World BookEncyclopedia. 1997. Cope, Jim. A Buyers Guide To Virus Protection: Getthe Lowdown on Six Win 95 Programs that Keep Digital Bugs from Invading your PCand Destroying your Files. NetGuide Mar. 1998: 143-146 Hackers,Terrorists, and Spies: You know theyre coming at you. Can you stop them?Software Magazine Oct. 1997: 76. McDonald, Glenn. Viruses: An Anatomy ofMass Hysteria. PCWorld Sept. 1997: 123-125 Miastkowski, Stan. VirusKillers 1998: This Year, Macro Viruses are Running Rampant. Which AntivirusProgram is Your Best Defense? PC World Mar. 1998: 114-116. Yang, W.D. Be Aware of Viruses and Use Protection. Computer Times 18 February1998: 85-89. Yegulalp, Serdar. Head to Head: Antivirus Software VirusProtection Superheroes. Windows Magazin